First Cousin Marriage - Beware !! 2 comments

A Person with whom you share a grandparent (but not a parent) is a first cousin. For years, the argument that has been existing is whether it is safe to marry a first cousin. There were talks that marrying a first cousing has higher risk of getting diseases, even at birth. They were also supported by the facts and figures taken from various surveys conducted across the globes.

There are many who are willing to marry a first cousin, mainly because they believe that the relationship would be much better with a person whom they know. They have better understanding and they have a nicer emotional feel. When scientists are trying to explain the risk in such marriages, many groups of people are denying it.

Studies says that there are higher chances that childs born to first cousins can get genetic defects, which may lead to rare but dangerous diseases. It is found that the children born has 10 times more chance of getting serious disability as a result of genetic disorder. Recessive genetic disorders (RGD) result from inheriting two defective recessive alleles of a gene, one from each parent. Let us have a look at genetics little a bit. We need a copy of a trait from both parents. Of these two copies, both can be dominant genes or one dominant and other recessive, or both recessive. We need atleast one dominant copy of the trait for that trait to show in the offspring. Eg) we need atleast one Tall (dominant gene) from any one of the parent to make the offspring tall. If both the copies are recessive, then that trait will not show in the offspring. If there happened to be one of these recessive traits being carried in people in the family, with every generation there is a greater chance that two carriers could come together and each donate a recessive trait. In other words, there is a greater probability that this trait will show up in a close family mating than in the general population. So if a child inherits a copy of same variant gene it may develop one of the 1000s of known RGD. Since the first cousin share the same grandparent, there are more chance for getting the two recessive gene (if present) one from each parent. Hence the risk increases.

In another point of view, when first cousins are married, there won't be much diversity in genes and chances of getting offspring with better qualities are reduced. When people with great qualities are confined to a community, there are chances that we lose them as we move down the generation.

So if you are willing to marry your first cousin, consult doctor and get yourself tested for the safety of your generation. Prevention is better than cure.

Negative marking !!! 3 comments

Negative marking in exams is part of evaluation process where in marks are deducted from the actual score for every wrong answer. It is now followed in most entrance exams. It makes more competition among the people attending the exam.

Most people are very much cautious while attending an exam that involves negative marking. They do not want to lose marks they have gained in other questions by attending questions that they dont know. I have attended few tests with negative marking and I believe that it is not a good idea to leave the question unanswered. The reason is as follows....

Negative marking scheme followed in the exams that I attended is deduction of 25% of marks assigned to the question that is wrongly answered. I assume there are four choices (1 correct and 3 wrong) to one question and each question carries one mark.

The probability that I chose the correct answer is 1/4 and for wrong answers, it is 3/4. Assume that I have four questions that I am not sure what to do or which is the correct answer. They are mutually independent of each other. So the probability that I answer all four wrongly is .75 x .75 x .75 x .75 = 0.32 and hence the probability that atleast one is correct is 1 - 0.32 = 0.68

Now if 1 question is wrong, I lose extra 0.25 marks. So total marks I lost extra if all four are wrong is 4 x 0.25 = 1 mark.

Assume I have atleast one correct. Then maximum that I will lose extra is 0.75

From this we see that we have greater probability(0.68) of gaining atleast 0.25 marks. Moreover we know atleast something about the subject. So we can eliminate options that we are sure which wont be the answer and this still increases our probability to gain marks. So I opt to attend all the questions than to leave the question unanswered. Caution to this approach is required if you are at the passing border.

I hope I am right in the probability calculation.... lol.

Abraham Lincoln's letter to his son's teacher 2 comments

He will have to learn, I know that all men are not just, all men are not true but teach him also for every scoundrel, there's a hero, that for every selfish politician there is a dedicated leader.

Teach him that for every enemy there is a friend it'll take him time, I know, but teach him if you can, that a dollar earned is far more valuable than five found Teach him to learn to lose and also to enjoy winning.

In school, teach him it is far more honorable to fail than to cheat. Teach him to have faith in his own ideas Even if everyone tells him he's wrong. Teach him to be gentle with gentle people, and tough with the tough.

Try to give my son the strength not to follow the crowd, when everyone is getting on the bandwagon. Teach him to listen to all men but teach him also to filter all he hears on a screen of truth, and take only the good that comes through.

Teach him he you can How to laugh when he's sad to teach him there's no shame in tears, Teach him to scoff at cynics and to beware of too much sweetness.

Teach him to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but never to put a price tag on his heart and soul. Let him have the courage to be patient to be brave. Teach him always to have sublime faith in himself because then he will always have Sublime faith in mankind.